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Original message:

Hi,I am a Tanzanian and a recent graduate from the Open University of Tanzania. I am very interested in research works by different scholars.
I plan to embark on composing my own research paper and at this point in time i would prefer to start with an article carrying a title ''Factors inhibiting the growth of small Business enterprises in southern Tanzania"
Could you please acquaint me with how to write this research article?

Mabrucki Ismail


Hi Mabrucki
Here are the steps I take.  i read like crazy - anything I can get my hands on!
Then I start to outline my thoughts.  
Then I flesh out the article with information from what I read - be careful to "cite as you write".  I have after included a fact and then been unable to find the source later!

Does this help?

Jennifer Swann


Dear Ismail,
I hope you have reviewed the necessary literature and it looks like you have collected data and what you want now is to start writing the paper. A sketch would be as follows:
1. Write the background-setting the hook/bait and defining the problem. Basically addressing:
a) why the topic is important
b) key/anchoring studies
c)what are the concerns arising/knowledge gaps
d)concretize your key research question/objective
e) write specific study objectives/hypotheses
2. Literarure Review
a) Conceptual review-clarifying key concepts in your study
b)theoretical review-theories providing grounding for your study
c)Description of study contexr
d) Emperical review and hypotheses development-discuss extant emperical studies and use them to develop your hypotheses(if any) or the conceptual framework
3. Methodology
a)Study design
b)population and sampling
c)validity and reliability
d)analyses to be carried on the data to answer study questions
a) Descriptive statistics
b) test results
5. Discussion
a)Discuss findings in relation to extant literature-convergences, divergences and possible reasons for the same
Hope this helps for a start. I have just done this quickly to get you started. It can be refined.

John Otieno Oredo



In case it would be relevant: The AuthorAID Resource Library ( contains many presentations and other materials on writing and publishing research articles. Some of the items that you or others might find useful are the following:

•    Preparing the Four Main Parts of a Scientific Paper: Concise Advice (
•    Facilitation Kit: Writing a Journal Article Reporting Research (
•    2016 Intensive Course in Research Writing (

Hoping this proves useful--

Barbara Gastel, MD, MPH, Professor, Texas A&M University, INASP Associate - AuthorAID